Published and Unpublished Works

Articles
Abizaid, C., O.T. Coomes, Y. Takasaki, and J. P. Arroyo-Mora. 2017. Rural social networks along Amazonian rivers: seeds, labor and soccer among rural communities on the Napo River, Peru”, The Geographical Review doi: 10.1111/gere.12244
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Rural Village Networks, Napo River, Peru. Communities are shown as circles; lines represent linkages. Magenta (black) = communities in Mazán; cyan (dark gray) = communities in Napo; yellow (light gray) = communities in Torres Causana; black (white) = communities outside of the Napo basin. Different color lines denote linkages across districts. The sociogram for the soccer network has been rotated given the apparent overlap between the soccer network (social space) and geographical space. Photographs show manioc cuttings (A), a cooperative labor party (B), and a soccer team during a tournament (C). Sociograms prepared by Dylan Shaul.
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Coomes, O.T., Y. Takasaki, C. Abizaid and J.P. Arroyo-Mora. 2016.Environmental and market determinants of economic orientation among rain forest communities: evidence from a large-scale survey in western Amazonia”, Ecological Economics 129: 260-271. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.06.001
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Primary economic orientation of communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Top-ranked activity and participation rates indicate a shift away from forest-based extraction towards agriculture.
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Webster, K., J.P. Arroyo-Mora, O.T. Coomes, Y. Takasaki and C. Abizaid. 2016.A cost path and network analysis methodology to calculate distances along a complex river network in the Peruvian Amazon”, Applied Geography 73:13-25. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.05.008
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Flow chart showing the cost path and network analysis methodology applied to calculate distances to a single destination (Approach 1) and from several communities to several communities (Approach 2).
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Working papers, theses, reports and manuscripts
Coomes, O.T., Y.T. Takasaki, and C. Abizaid. 2017. “Impoverishment of local environmental resources in western Amazonia: results of a large-scale community survey of local ecological knowledge” (in prep.)


Coomes, O.T., Y.T. Takasaki, and C. Abizaid. 2017. “Regional product and wage markets in Amazonia: spatial structure, integration and rural terms of trade in Peru” (in prep.)


Bryson, L.C. 2017.Spatial patterns of natural resource depletion among rain forest communities in the Peruvian Amazon: the role of protected areas and indigenous territories in the conservation of key species”, M.Sc thesis, University of Toronto, 78 pp.


Sanchez, L. and C. Abizaid. 2016. “Environmental shock exposure in the Peruvian Amazon”, Summary Report, University of Toronto, 39 pp.


Donohue, L. 2015. “Resilience and vulnerability of river-side communities to environmental shocks in Loreto and Ucayali regions, Peruvian Amazon”, B.Sc. Honours thesis, McGill University, 68 pp.


Donohue, L., and O.T. Coomes. 2014. “Natural resource availability in the Peruvian Amazon: descriptive analyses”, Summary report, McGill University, 164 pp.


Miller, W.N. 2013. “Historical and geographical patterns of human settlement in the Napo River basin, Peruvian Amazon”, BA & BSc Honours thesis, McGill University, 70 pp.


Shaul, D. and C. Abizaid. 2016. “Soccer, seed, and labour exchange networks in the Napo basin, Peru”, Summary report, University of Toronto, 159 pp.
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Community-based soccer networks along the Napo river, Peru. Colors reflect community ethnicity. (A) Napo river basin (B) Mazan, District capital, Napo river
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Donohue, L. 2015. “Resilience and vulnerability of river-side communities to environmental shocks in Loreto and Ucayali regions, Peruvian Amazon”, B.Sc. Honours thesis, McGill University, 68 pp.


Donohue, L., and O.T. Coomes. 2014. “Natural resource availability in the Peruvian Amazon: descriptive analyses”, Summary report, McGill University, 164 pp.


Miller, W.N. 2013. “Historical and geographical patterns of human settlement in the Napo River basin, Peruvian Amazon”, BA & BSc Honours thesis, McGill University, 70 pp.

Conference Presentations
Coomes, O.T., Y. Takasaki, and C. Abizaid. 2017. “Impoverishment of local environmental resources in western Amazonia: results from a large-scale community study”. Presented on April 5th to the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Boston, MA, USA .
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Species presence and loss in communities since 1960. (A) White-lipped peccary in the Middle and Upper Ucayali basin (B) Mahogany in the Napo-Amazon basin.
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Abizaid, C., O.T. Coomes, L. Johnson, M. Lapointe, M. Kalacska, and Y. Takasaki. 2017. “Community exposure to natural environmental hazards in riverine Peruvian Amazonia”. Presented on April 5th to the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Boston, MA, USA
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Community exposure to major floods 1932-2014
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Coomes, O.T., Y. Takasaki, C. Abizaid, and J.P. Arroyo-Mora. 2017. “Regional markets and terms of trade in the Peruvian Amazon”. Presented on January 4th to the Conference of Latin American Geographers, New Orleans, LA, USA.
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(A) Market areas and primary trade linkages in the Middle and Upper Ucayali river basin, Peru, (B) Barter terms of trade in the Napo/Amazon river basin. Number of racemes of plantain to purchase one litre of cooking oil
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Coomes, O.T., Y. Takasaki, C. Abizaid and J.P. Arroyo-Mora. 2016. “Environmental and economic determinants of rain forest livelihood choice: a community-level approach”. Presented on April 2nd to the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, San Francisco, CA, USA.
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Relative endowments of terrestrial and aquatic resources by community in the Peruvian Amazon
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Abizaid C., O.T. Coomes, Y. Takasaki, and P. Arroyo Mora. 2016. “Rural social networks along Amazonian rivers: Soccer, seeds, and labor among rural communities on the Napo River, Peru”. Presented on April 2 to the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. San Francisco, CA, USA.


Coomes, O.T., Y. Takasaki, C. Abizaid and J.P. Arroyo-Mora. 2015. “Environmental and economic determinants of rain forest livelihood choice: a community-level analysis from western Amazonia”. Presented on November 29th to the Forests and Livelihoods: Assessment, Research, and Engagement (FLARE) Network Conference, Paris, France.


Coomes, O.T., Y. Takasaki, C. Abizaid and P. Arroyo-Mora. 2015. “Rural poverty among indigenous and folk peoples in Western Amazonia: The PARLAP Project”. Presented at the 111th Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Chicago, IL, April 21-25.


Abizaid C., Y. Takasaki, O.T. Coomes and P. Arroyo Mora. 2014. “Village networks and traditional agriculture in the District of Mazan, Napo river, Peruvian Amazon”. Presented at the 2014 CAG-Ontario Meeting, York University, October 24-25.


Abizaid C., Y. Takasaki, O.T. Coomes and P. Arroyo Mora. 2014. “Village networks and traditional agriculture in the District of Mazan, Napo river, Peruvian Amazon”. Presented at the 110th Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Tampa, FL. April 8-11.


Abizaid C., Y. Takasaki, O.T. Coomes and P. Arroyo Mora. 2014. “Village networks and traditional agriculture in the District of Mazan, Napo river, Peruvian Amazon”. Presented at the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers Meeting, Panama City, Panama. January 7-11.

Seminar Presentations
Abizaid, C. “The Peruvian Amazon Rural Livelihoods and Poverty (PARLAP) Project: A large-scale study among rain forest communities in Western Amazonia”, University of Texas at Austin (February, 2017)


Coomes, O.T. “The Peruvian Amazon Rural Livelihoods and Poverty (PARLAP) Project: a large-scale study among rain forest communities in western Amazonia”, University of Toronto – Scarborough (November, 2016)


Takasaki, Y. “Peruvian Amazon Rural Livelihoods and Poverty (PARLAP) Project”, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan (May, 2016)


Takasaki, Y. “Environmental and economic determinants of rain forest livelihoods: a community-level analysis from western Amazonia”, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan (May, 2016)


Takasaki, Y. “Environmental and economic determinants of rain forest livelihood choice: a community-level analysis from western Amazonia”, Hitotsubashi University (January, 2016)


Takasaki, Y. “Environmental and economic determinants of rain forest livelihood choice: a community-level Analysis from western Amazonia”, Kobe University (December, 2015)


Takasaki, Y. “Environmental and economic determinants of rain forest livelihood choice: a community-level analysis from western Amazonia”, University of Tokyo (December, 2015)
  1. Abstract: Research on Amazonian communities has focussed more often on rural-urban linkages than on links among rural communities. This is unsurprising, given the low density of population, limited intercommunity commerce, and importance of direct city-market relations. Social relations among rural communities are also important in shaping rural livelihoods and lifeways. We report on the findings of a large-scale census of communities in the Napo River basin in northeastern Peru (n=174). Data were gathered on intervillage crop seed acquisition and cooperative labor sharing as two key inputs in agriculture, and on intervillage soccer matches, which are integral to rural social life. We analyze the socio-spatial networks of each practice, paying attention to settlement patterns, community ethnicity, and differential access to the uplands. We find that seeds and labor flow along soccer network lines. Rural social networks appear to be structured strongly by ethnicity (homophily) and reflect important complementarities between upland and lowland communities (weak ties).
  2. Abstract: Large scale surveys of rain forest livelihoods open up new possibilities for understanding the role of forest resources in the well-being of forest peoples but often overlook the factors that influence the diverse economic foci of forest-based communities. In this paper we describe the Peruvian Amazon Rural Livelihoods and Poverty (PARLAP) Project which seeks to identify the factors that contribute to rural poverty among indigenous and folk peoples through the first large scale survey conducted in this data poor region. Our paper draws upon a community census undertaken in four major river sub-basins in eastern Peru (n = 919 communities) and asks the question, how do environmental and market factors influence the economic orientation of rain forest communities? Recognizing that standard approaches that explain activity choice by current conditions are problematic because of potential endogeneity, we propose a new analytical framework that examines how historical (initial) conditions determine current conditions and thus current economic activities. Our approach produces a rich array of results that point to the importance of initial environmental endowments and market access of communities in shaping their economic orientation, interacting in different ways depending on the key natural resource upon which they rely.
  3. Abstract: Distance is a key variable in explicating environmental, social, and economic conditions and in defining spatial and temporal patterns. Prior research has primarily focused on using simple to complex algorithms for calculating distances along road networks. In contrast, few algorithms are available for distance calculations along fluvial networks which are often more erratic, divergent and transient than road networks. Fluvial transportation is relied upon worldwide, particularly in developing regions, where communities use river networks for transportation, access to natural resources and for trade and commerce. This paper presents a methodology developed for mapping complex fluvial networks for travel distance analysis. The methodology was applied in four major river basins in western Amazonia over some 35,000 km of river length and incorporating 919 communities as origins/destinations. A cost path and network analysis methodology was created using vector and raster datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess interactions among communities and the distances traveled by river to reach district capitals, major urban centres and marketplaces. An accuracy assessment using distance values calculated from a previous study using a different methodological approach in the region as well as Google Earth Pro, found a high degree of concordance for distance calculations. Our methodology creates a very flexible approach for complex river systems that can be use to calculate river distances in an adaptive and efficient manner and that can be use in other regions of the world where rural communities must rely on rivers for transportation.
  4. Abstract:Human-induced environmental change is not a new phenomenon in biologically rich areas of western Amazonia. Rain forest communities have long modified their environments, pursuing a diverse portfolio of economic activities for subsistence and income generation. Globally, protected areas (PAs) are the chief conservation strategy. While the effectiveness of different PA models continues to be debated, recent research acknowledges the significance of extractive PAs and indigenous territories to the conservation of biodiversity in human-modified landscapes. Using community census data collected from rain forest communities in the data poor region of the Peruvian Amazon (N=919), spatial clustering and regression analyses are applied to evaluate the effect of proximity to extractive PAs and indigenous territories on relative availability of key species. Controlling for important environmental, market, and community characteristics, our research indicates that extractive PAs and indigenous territories have helped to preserve the availability of key species by certain measures that we isolate in the work.
  5. Abstract: Amazonian rivers provide significant opportunities for floodplain agriculture but also bring destructive floods, cause river bank slumps, and force communities to relocate. This thesis aims to assess the resilience and vulnerability of river-side communities to environmental shocks in the Regions of Loreto and Ucayali of eastern Peru. Using data from the Peruvian Amazon Rural Livelihoods and Poverty Project (PARLAP), this study applies multivariate statistical techniques and mapping to identify patterns in community vulnerability among 919 communities along four Amazonian rivers. I find that riverbank slumping is a greater threat to community stability than large floods, and that the most vulnerable communities are those located in the floodplains without complementary access to land in the upland, often relocating to riskier locations. Sub-regional heterogeneity in environmental shocks and community stability is considerable, and initiatives aimed at reducing rural poverty must consider this variation in adapting strategies to the specific locales they target.